Information TikTok to Tourette syndrome! Why??? Some information about TS

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What is Tourette syndrome?
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics. TS is one of a group of disorders of the developing nervous system called tic disorders.

There is no cure for TS, but treatments are available to help manage some symptoms.

These TS is similar to Latah ( melatah in malay) but different.

Latah is a culture-bound syndrome from Malaysia and Indonesia. Persons exhibiting the Latah syndrome respond to minimal stimuli with exaggerated startles, often exclaiming normally inhibited sexually denotative words. Sometimes Latahs after being startled obey the commands or imitate the actions of persons about them.

Onset of Tics and Duration
Tics come and go over time, varying in type, frequency, location, and severity. The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 5 and 10 years, generally in the head and neck area and may progress to include muscles of the trunk and arms and legs. Motor tics generally occur before the development of vocal tics and simple tics often precede complex tics.

Most people with TS experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, but tics typically lessen and become controlled by the late teens to early 20s. For some people, TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms that last into adulthood. Many people do not need treatment when symptoms do not interfere with daily life. Some individuals may become tic-free or no longer need medication to control their tics. In some cases, tics may worsen in adulthood. TS is not a degenerative condition (one that continues to get worse) and individuals with TS have a normal life expectancy.

What causes TS?
Most cases of TS involve the interaction of multiple gene variations and environmental factors.

Although the cause of TS is unknown, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions (including the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex), the circuits that connect these regions, and the neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) responsible for communication between nerve cells (called neurons).

TS Inheritance
Evidence from twin and family studies suggests that TS is an inherited disorder. A small number of people with Tourette syndrome have mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene, which affects how neurons grow and connect with one another, and scientists continue to look for other genes involved with TS. Abnormalities in the NRXN1 and CNTN6 genes, which also regulate the normal formation of these nerve connections, also may play a role in TS. Although there may be a few genes with substantial effects, it is also possible that many genes with smaller effects and environmental factors may play a role in the development of TS.

It is important for families to understand that genetic tendency may not necessarily result in TS; instead, it may express itself as a milder tic disorder or as obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It is also possible that children who inherit the gene abnormality will not develop any TS symptoms.

Genetic studies also suggest that some forms of ADHD and OCD are genetically related to TS, but there is less evidence for a genetic relationship between TS and other neurobehavioral problems that commonly co-occur with TS.

The gender of the person also plays an important role in TS gene expression. At-risk males are more likely to have tics and at-risk females are more likely to have obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Genetic counseling of individuals with TS should include a full review of all potentially hereditary conditions in the family.

What are the signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome?

The motor (involving movement) or vocal (involving sound) tics of Tourette syndrome are classified as either simple or complex. They may range from very mild to severe, although most cases are mild.

Simple tics: sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. They are more common than complex tics.

Complex tics: distinct, coordinated patterns of movement involving several muscle groups.

Examples of motor tics seen in Tourette syndrome
Simple motor tics include eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking.

Complex motor tics might include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting.

Examples of vocal (phonic) tics in Tourette syndrome

Simple vocal tics include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, barking, or grunting sounds.

Complex vocal tics may include repeating one’s own words or phrases, repeating others’ words or phrases (called echolalia), or more rarely, using vulgar, obscene, or swear words (called coprolalia).

Some of the most dramatic and disabling tics may include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics such as echolalia or swearing. Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group (called a premonitory urge). Some with TS will describe a need to complete a tic in a certain way or a certain number of times to relieve the urge or decrease the sensation.

Tic triggers
Tics are often worse with excitement or anxiety and better during calm, focused activities. Certain physical experiences can trigger or worsen tics; for example, tight collars may trigger neck tics. Hearing another person sniff or clear the throat may trigger similar sounds. Tics do not go away during light sleep but are often significantly diminished; they go away completely in deep sleep.

Although the symptoms of TS are unwanted and unintentional (called involuntary), some people can suppress or otherwise manage their tics to minimize their impact on functioning. However, people with TS often report a substantial buildup in tension when suppressing their tics to the point where they feel that the tic must be expressed (against their will). Tics in response to an environmental trigger can appear to be voluntary or purposeful but are not.

Disorders Associated with TS
Many individuals with TS experience additional co-occurring neurobehavioral problems (how the brain affects emotion, behavior, and learning) that often cause more impairment than the tics themselves. Although most individuals with TS experience a significant decline in motor and vocal tics in late adolescence and early adulthood, the associated neurobehavioral conditions may continue into adulthood.

News flash: some people who addicted to TikTok have develop these syndrome. ( These show something interesting about how some of TS trigger)

The most common co-occurring conditions include:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including problems with concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Behaviors (OCD/OCB): repetitive, unwanted thoughts, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) that make the person feel the need to perform behaviors repeatedly or in a certain way (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors can include handwashing, checking things, and cleaning, and can significantly interfere with daily life.

Anxiety (fear, unease, or apprehension about a situation or event that may have an uncertain ending).

Learning disabilities such as problems with reading, writing, and arithmetic that are not related to intelligence.

Behavioral or conduct issues, including socially inappropriate behaviors, aggression, or anger.

Problems falling or staying asleep.
Social skills deficits and social functioning difficulties, such as trouble with social skills and with maintaining social relationships.

Sensory processing issues, such as difficulty organizing and responding to sensory information related to touch, taste, smells, sounds, or movement.what is tourette syndrome?

How is TS diagnosed?

To diagnose TS, a doctor looks for the following:
Presence of both motor and vocal tics that occur several times a day, every day or intermittently for at least 1 year.
Onset of tics before age 18.

Tics not caused by medications, other substances, or medical conditions.how is ts diagnosed?

Common tics are often diagnosed by knowledgeable clinicians. However, atypical symptoms (different from classical symptoms) or atypical presentations (for example, symptoms that begin in adulthood) may require specific specialty expertise for diagnosis.

There are no blood, laboratory, or imaging tests needed for diagnosis. In rare cases, neuroimaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT), electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, or certain blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions that might be confused with TS.

It may take some time to receive a formal diagnosis of TS. Families and physicians unfamiliar with the disorder might think mild and even moderate tic symptoms may be negligible or unimportant, a part of a developmental phase, or the result of another condition. For example, some parents may think that eye blinking is related to vision problems or that sniffing is related to seasonal allergies.

How is TS treated?
Because tic symptoms often are mild and do not cause impairment, some people with TS require no treatment. There are effective medications and other treatments for people whose symptoms interfere with daily functioning.

Medications

Medications that block dopamine (drugs that may be used to treat psychotic and non-psychotic disorders) are the most consistently useful medications to suppress tics (for example, haloperidol and pimozide). These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and guanfacine. These medications are used primarily for hypertension (high blood pressure) but are also used in the treatment of tics. These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine can lessen ADHD symptoms in people with TS without causing tics to become more severe. Previously, these drugs were not recommended for children with tics or TS and those with a family history of tics. Some studies show the short-term use of these drugs can help children with TS who also have ADHD.

Antidepressants, specifically, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) have been proven effective in some people to control symptoms of depression, OCD, and anxiety.

Unfortunately, there is no one medication that is helpful to all people with TS, nor does any medication completely eliminate symptoms.

Other therapies and treatments can include:

Behavioral treatments such as awareness training and competing response training can be used to reduce tics. A recent NIH-funded, multi-center randomized control trial called Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) showed that training to voluntarily move in response to a premonitory urge can reduce tic symptoms. Other behavioral therapies, such as biofeedback or supportive therapy, have not been shown to reduce tic symptoms. However, supportive therapy can help a person with TS better cope with the disorder and deal with the secondary social and emotional problems that sometimes occur.

Psychotherapy can help individuals cope with the disorder and deal with accompanying problems or conditions, including ADHD, depression, anxiety, and OCD.

Famous people of tourette.
1.Billie Eilish
2.David Beckham
3.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
4.Tim Howard
5.Marc Summers

Source; NIH, NIND, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE
~rasa mcm lari dr edit dr notepad phone~
Sekian dr grimmy081
 
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What is Tourette syndrome?
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics. TS is one of a group of disorders of the developing nervous system called tic disorders.

There is no cure for TS, but treatments are available to help manage some symptoms.

These TS is similar to Latah ( melatah in malay) but different.

Latah is a culture-bound syndrome from Malaysia and Indonesia. Persons exhibiting the Latah syndrome respond to minimal stimuli with exaggerated startles, often exclaiming normally inhibited sexually denotative words. Sometimes Latahs after being startled obey the commands or imitate the actions of persons about them.

Onset of Tics and Duration
Tics come and go over time, varying in type, frequency, location, and severity. The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 5 and 10 years, generally in the head and neck area and may progress to include muscles of the trunk and arms and legs. Motor tics generally occur before the development of vocal tics and simple tics often precede complex tics.

Most people with TS experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, but tics typically lessen and become controlled by the late teens to early 20s. For some people, TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms that last into adulthood. Many people do not need treatment when symptoms do not interfere with daily life. Some individuals may become tic-free or no longer need medication to control their tics. In some cases, tics may worsen in adulthood. TS is not a degenerative condition (one that continues to get worse) and individuals with TS have a normal life expectancy.

What causes TS?
Most cases of TS involve the interaction of multiple gene variations and environmental factors.

Although the cause of TS is unknown, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions (including the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex), the circuits that connect these regions, and the neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) responsible for communication between nerve cells (called neurons).

TS Inheritance
Evidence from twin and family studies suggests that TS is an inherited disorder. A small number of people with Tourette syndrome have mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene, which affects how neurons grow and connect with one another, and scientists continue to look for other genes involved with TS. Abnormalities in the NRXN1 and CNTN6 genes, which also regulate the normal formation of these nerve connections, also may play a role in TS. Although there may be a few genes with substantial effects, it is also possible that many genes with smaller effects and environmental factors may play a role in the development of TS.

It is important for families to understand that genetic tendency may not necessarily result in TS; instead, it may express itself as a milder tic disorder or as obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It is also possible that children who inherit the gene abnormality will not develop any TS symptoms.

Genetic studies also suggest that some forms of ADHD and OCD are genetically related to TS, but there is less evidence for a genetic relationship between TS and other neurobehavioral problems that commonly co-occur with TS.

The gender of the person also plays an important role in TS gene expression. At-risk males are more likely to have tics and at-risk females are more likely to have obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Genetic counseling of individuals with TS should include a full review of all potentially hereditary conditions in the family.

What are the signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome?

The motor (involving movement) or vocal (involving sound) tics of Tourette syndrome are classified as either simple or complex. They may range from very mild to severe, although most cases are mild.

Simple tics: sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. They are more common than complex tics.

Complex tics: distinct, coordinated patterns of movement involving several muscle groups.

Examples of motor tics seen in Tourette syndrome
Simple motor tics include eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking.

Complex motor tics might include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting.

Examples of vocal (phonic) tics in Tourette syndrome

Simple vocal tics include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, barking, or grunting sounds.

Complex vocal tics may include repeating one’s own words or phrases, repeating others’ words or phrases (called echolalia), or more rarely, using vulgar, obscene, or swear words (called coprolalia).

Some of the most dramatic and disabling tics may include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics such as echolalia or swearing. Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group (called a premonitory urge). Some with TS will describe a need to complete a tic in a certain way or a certain number of times to relieve the urge or decrease the sensation.

Tic triggers
Tics are often worse with excitement or anxiety and better during calm, focused activities. Certain physical experiences can trigger or worsen tics; for example, tight collars may trigger neck tics. Hearing another person sniff or clear the throat may trigger similar sounds. Tics do not go away during light sleep but are often significantly diminished; they go away completely in deep sleep.

Although the symptoms of TS are unwanted and unintentional (called involuntary), some people can suppress or otherwise manage their tics to minimize their impact on functioning. However, people with TS often report a substantial buildup in tension when suppressing their tics to the point where they feel that the tic must be expressed (against their will). Tics in response to an environmental trigger can appear to be voluntary or purposeful but are not.

Disorders Associated with TS
Many individuals with TS experience additional co-occurring neurobehavioral problems (how the brain affects emotion, behavior, and learning) that often cause more impairment than the tics themselves. Although most individuals with TS experience a significant decline in motor and vocal tics in late adolescence and early adulthood, the associated neurobehavioral conditions may continue into adulthood.

News flash: some people who addicted to TikTok have develop these syndrome. ( These show something interesting about how some of TS trigger)

The most common co-occurring conditions include:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including problems with concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Behaviors (OCD/OCB): repetitive, unwanted thoughts, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) that make the person feel the need to perform behaviors repeatedly or in a certain way (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors can include handwashing, checking things, and cleaning, and can significantly interfere with daily life.

Anxiety (fear, unease, or apprehension about a situation or event that may have an uncertain ending).

Learning disabilities such as problems with reading, writing, and arithmetic that are not related to intelligence.

Behavioral or conduct issues, including socially inappropriate behaviors, aggression, or anger.

Problems falling or staying asleep.
Social skills deficits and social functioning difficulties, such as trouble with social skills and with maintaining social relationships.

Sensory processing issues, such as difficulty organizing and responding to sensory information related to touch, taste, smells, sounds, or movement.what is tourette syndrome?

How is TS diagnosed?

To diagnose TS, a doctor looks for the following:
Presence of both motor and vocal tics that occur several times a day, every day or intermittently for at least 1 year.
Onset of tics before age 18.

Tics not caused by medications, other substances, or medical conditions.how is ts diagnosed?

Common tics are often diagnosed by knowledgeable clinicians. However, atypical symptoms (different from classical symptoms) or atypical presentations (for example, symptoms that begin in adulthood) may require specific specialty expertise for diagnosis.

There are no blood, laboratory, or imaging tests needed for diagnosis. In rare cases, neuroimaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT), electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, or certain blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions that might be confused with TS.

It may take some time to receive a formal diagnosis of TS. Families and physicians unfamiliar with the disorder might think mild and even moderate tic symptoms may be negligible or unimportant, a part of a developmental phase, or the result of another condition. For example, some parents may think that eye blinking is related to vision problems or that sniffing is related to seasonal allergies.

How is TS treated?
Because tic symptoms often are mild and do not cause impairment, some people with TS require no treatment. There are effective medications and other treatments for people whose symptoms interfere with daily functioning.

Medications

Medications that block dopamine (drugs that may be used to treat psychotic and non-psychotic disorders) are the most consistently useful medications to suppress tics (for example, haloperidol and pimozide). These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and guanfacine. These medications are used primarily for hypertension (high blood pressure) but are also used in the treatment of tics. These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine can lessen ADHD symptoms in people with TS without causing tics to become more severe. Previously, these drugs were not recommended for children with tics or TS and those with a family history of tics. Some studies show the short-term use of these drugs can help children with TS who also have ADHD.

Antidepressants, specifically, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) have been proven effective in some people to control symptoms of depression, OCD, and anxiety.

Unfortunately, there is no one medication that is helpful to all people with TS, nor does any medication completely eliminate symptoms.

Other therapies and treatments can include:

Behavioral treatments such as awareness training and competing response training can be used to reduce tics. A recent NIH-funded, multi-center randomized control trial called Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) showed that training to voluntarily move in response to a premonitory urge can reduce tic symptoms. Other behavioral therapies, such as biofeedback or supportive therapy, have not been shown to reduce tic symptoms. However, supportive therapy can help a person with TS better cope with the disorder and deal with the secondary social and emotional problems that sometimes occur.

Psychotherapy can help individuals cope with the disorder and deal with accompanying problems or conditions, including ADHD, depression, anxiety, and OCD.

Famous people of tourette.
1.Billie Eilish
2.David Beckham
3.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
4.Tim Howard
5.Marc Summers

Source; NIH, NIND, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE
~rasa mcm lari dr edit dr notepad phone~
Sekian dr grimmy081

Sorry nt edit balik 😰 buruk goman dio.
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What is Tourette syndrome?
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics. TS is one of a group of disorders of the developing nervous system called tic disorders.

There is no cure for TS, but treatments are available to help manage some symptoms.

These TS is similar to Latah ( melatah in malay) but different.

Latah is a culture-bound syndrome from Malaysia and Indonesia. Persons exhibiting the Latah syndrome respond to minimal stimuli with exaggerated startles, often exclaiming normally inhibited sexually denotative words. Sometimes Latahs after being startled obey the commands or imitate the actions of persons about them.

Onset of Tics and Duration
Tics come and go over time, varying in type, frequency, location, and severity. The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 5 and 10 years, generally in the head and neck area and may progress to include muscles of the trunk and arms and legs. Motor tics generally occur before the development of vocal tics and simple tics often precede complex tics.

Most people with TS experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, but tics typically lessen and become controlled by the late teens to early 20s. For some people, TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms that last into adulthood. Many people do not need treatment when symptoms do not interfere with daily life. Some individuals may become tic-free or no longer need medication to control their tics. In some cases, tics may worsen in adulthood. TS is not a degenerative condition (one that continues to get worse) and individuals with TS have a normal life expectancy.

What causes TS?
Most cases of TS involve the interaction of multiple gene variations and environmental factors.

Although the cause of TS is unknown, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions (including the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex), the circuits that connect these regions, and the neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) responsible for communication between nerve cells (called neurons).

TS Inheritance
Evidence from twin and family studies suggests that TS is an inherited disorder. A small number of people with Tourette syndrome have mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene, which affects how neurons grow and connect with one another, and scientists continue to look for other genes involved with TS. Abnormalities in the NRXN1 and CNTN6 genes, which also regulate the normal formation of these nerve connections, also may play a role in TS. Although there may be a few genes with substantial effects, it is also possible that many genes with smaller effects and environmental factors may play a role in the development of TS.

It is important for families to understand that genetic tendency may not necessarily result in TS; instead, it may express itself as a milder tic disorder or as obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It is also possible that children who inherit the gene abnormality will not develop any TS symptoms.

Genetic studies also suggest that some forms of ADHD and OCD are genetically related to TS, but there is less evidence for a genetic relationship between TS and other neurobehavioral problems that commonly co-occur with TS.

The gender of the person also plays an important role in TS gene expression. At-risk males are more likely to have tics and at-risk females are more likely to have obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Genetic counseling of individuals with TS should include a full review of all potentially hereditary conditions in the family.

What are the signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome?

The motor (involving movement) or vocal (involving sound) tics of Tourette syndrome are classified as either simple or complex. They may range from very mild to severe, although most cases are mild.

Simple tics: sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. They are more common than complex tics.

Complex tics: distinct, coordinated patterns of movement involving several muscle groups.

Examples of motor tics seen in Tourette syndrome
Simple motor tics include eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking.

Complex motor tics might include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting.

Examples of vocal (phonic) tics in Tourette syndrome

Simple vocal tics include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, barking, or grunting sounds.

Complex vocal tics may include repeating one’s own words or phrases, repeating others’ words or phrases (called echolalia), or more rarely, using vulgar, obscene, or swear words (called coprolalia).

Some of the most dramatic and disabling tics may include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics such as echolalia or swearing. Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group (called a premonitory urge). Some with TS will describe a need to complete a tic in a certain way or a certain number of times to relieve the urge or decrease the sensation.

Tic triggers
Tics are often worse with excitement or anxiety and better during calm, focused activities. Certain physical experiences can trigger or worsen tics; for example, tight collars may trigger neck tics. Hearing another person sniff or clear the throat may trigger similar sounds. Tics do not go away during light sleep but are often significantly diminished; they go away completely in deep sleep.

Although the symptoms of TS are unwanted and unintentional (called involuntary), some people can suppress or otherwise manage their tics to minimize their impact on functioning. However, people with TS often report a substantial buildup in tension when suppressing their tics to the point where they feel that the tic must be expressed (against their will). Tics in response to an environmental trigger can appear to be voluntary or purposeful but are not.

Disorders Associated with TS
Many individuals with TS experience additional co-occurring neurobehavioral problems (how the brain affects emotion, behavior, and learning) that often cause more impairment than the tics themselves. Although most individuals with TS experience a significant decline in motor and vocal tics in late adolescence and early adulthood, the associated neurobehavioral conditions may continue into adulthood.

News flash: some people who addicted to TikTok have develop these syndrome. ( These show something interesting about how some of TS trigger)

The most common co-occurring conditions include:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including problems with concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Behaviors (OCD/OCB): repetitive, unwanted thoughts, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) that make the person feel the need to perform behaviors repeatedly or in a certain way (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors can include handwashing, checking things, and cleaning, and can significantly interfere with daily life.

Anxiety (fear, unease, or apprehension about a situation or event that may have an uncertain ending).

Learning disabilities such as problems with reading, writing, and arithmetic that are not related to intelligence.

Behavioral or conduct issues, including socially inappropriate behaviors, aggression, or anger.

Problems falling or staying asleep.
Social skills deficits and social functioning difficulties, such as trouble with social skills and with maintaining social relationships.

Sensory processing issues, such as difficulty organizing and responding to sensory information related to touch, taste, smells, sounds, or movement.what is tourette syndrome?

How is TS diagnosed?

To diagnose TS, a doctor looks for the following:
Presence of both motor and vocal tics that occur several times a day, every day or intermittently for at least 1 year.
Onset of tics before age 18.

Tics not caused by medications, other substances, or medical conditions.how is ts diagnosed?

Common tics are often diagnosed by knowledgeable clinicians. However, atypical symptoms (different from classical symptoms) or atypical presentations (for example, symptoms that begin in adulthood) may require specific specialty expertise for diagnosis.

There are no blood, laboratory, or imaging tests needed for diagnosis. In rare cases, neuroimaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT), electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, or certain blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions that might be confused with TS.

It may take some time to receive a formal diagnosis of TS. Families and physicians unfamiliar with the disorder might think mild and even moderate tic symptoms may be negligible or unimportant, a part of a developmental phase, or the result of another condition. For example, some parents may think that eye blinking is related to vision problems or that sniffing is related to seasonal allergies.

How is TS treated?
Because tic symptoms often are mild and do not cause impairment, some people with TS require no treatment. There are effective medications and other treatments for people whose symptoms interfere with daily functioning.

Medications

Medications that block dopamine (drugs that may be used to treat psychotic and non-psychotic disorders) are the most consistently useful medications to suppress tics (for example, haloperidol and pimozide). These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and guanfacine. These medications are used primarily for hypertension (high blood pressure) but are also used in the treatment of tics. These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine can lessen ADHD symptoms in people with TS without causing tics to become more severe. Previously, these drugs were not recommended for children with tics or TS and those with a family history of tics. Some studies show the short-term use of these drugs can help children with TS who also have ADHD.

Antidepressants, specifically, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) have been proven effective in some people to control symptoms of depression, OCD, and anxiety.

Unfortunately, there is no one medication that is helpful to all people with TS, nor does any medication completely eliminate symptoms.

Other therapies and treatments can include:

Behavioral treatments such as awareness training and competing response training can be used to reduce tics. A recent NIH-funded, multi-center randomized control trial called Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) showed that training to voluntarily move in response to a premonitory urge can reduce tic symptoms. Other behavioral therapies, such as biofeedback or supportive therapy, have not been shown to reduce tic symptoms. However, supportive therapy can help a person with TS better cope with the disorder and deal with the secondary social and emotional problems that sometimes occur.

Psychotherapy can help individuals cope with the disorder and deal with accompanying problems or conditions, including ADHD, depression, anxiety, and OCD.

Famous people of tourette.
1.Billie Eilish
2.David Beckham
3.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
4.Tim Howard
5.Marc Summers

Source; NIH, NIND, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE
~rasa mcm lari dr edit dr notepad phone~
Sekian dr grimmy081

Sorry nt edit balik 😰 buruk goman dio.
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What is Tourette syndrome?
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological disorder characterized by sudden, repetitive, rapid, and unwanted movements or vocal sounds called tics. TS is one of a group of disorders of the developing nervous system called tic disorders.

There is no cure for TS, but treatments are available to help manage some symptoms.

These TS is similar to Latah ( melatah in malay) but different.

Latah is a culture-bound syndrome from Malaysia and Indonesia. Persons exhibiting the Latah syndrome respond to minimal stimuli with exaggerated startles, often exclaiming normally inhibited sexually denotative words. Sometimes Latahs after being startled obey the commands or imitate the actions of persons about them.

Onset of Tics and Duration
Tics come and go over time, varying in type, frequency, location, and severity. The first symptoms usually occur between the ages of 5 and 10 years, generally in the head and neck area and may progress to include muscles of the trunk and arms and legs. Motor tics generally occur before the development of vocal tics and simple tics often precede complex tics.

Most people with TS experience their worst tic symptoms in their early teens, but tics typically lessen and become controlled by the late teens to early 20s. For some people, TS can be a chronic condition with symptoms that last into adulthood. Many people do not need treatment when symptoms do not interfere with daily life. Some individuals may become tic-free or no longer need medication to control their tics. In some cases, tics may worsen in adulthood. TS is not a degenerative condition (one that continues to get worse) and individuals with TS have a normal life expectancy.

What causes TS?
Most cases of TS involve the interaction of multiple gene variations and environmental factors.

Although the cause of TS is unknown, current research points to abnormalities in certain brain regions (including the basal ganglia, frontal lobes, and cortex), the circuits that connect these regions, and the neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) responsible for communication between nerve cells (called neurons).

TS Inheritance
Evidence from twin and family studies suggests that TS is an inherited disorder. A small number of people with Tourette syndrome have mutations involving the SLITRK1 gene, which affects how neurons grow and connect with one another, and scientists continue to look for other genes involved with TS. Abnormalities in the NRXN1 and CNTN6 genes, which also regulate the normal formation of these nerve connections, also may play a role in TS. Although there may be a few genes with substantial effects, it is also possible that many genes with smaller effects and environmental factors may play a role in the development of TS.

It is important for families to understand that genetic tendency may not necessarily result in TS; instead, it may express itself as a milder tic disorder or as obsessive-compulsive behaviors. It is also possible that children who inherit the gene abnormality will not develop any TS symptoms.

Genetic studies also suggest that some forms of ADHD and OCD are genetically related to TS, but there is less evidence for a genetic relationship between TS and other neurobehavioral problems that commonly co-occur with TS.

The gender of the person also plays an important role in TS gene expression. At-risk males are more likely to have tics and at-risk females are more likely to have obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

Genetic counseling of individuals with TS should include a full review of all potentially hereditary conditions in the family.

What are the signs and symptoms of Tourette syndrome?

The motor (involving movement) or vocal (involving sound) tics of Tourette syndrome are classified as either simple or complex. They may range from very mild to severe, although most cases are mild.

Simple tics: sudden, brief, repetitive movements that involve a limited number of muscle groups. They are more common than complex tics.

Complex tics: distinct, coordinated patterns of movement involving several muscle groups.

Examples of motor tics seen in Tourette syndrome
Simple motor tics include eye blinking and other eye movements, facial grimacing, shoulder shrugging, and head or shoulder jerking.

Complex motor tics might include facial grimacing combined with a head twist and a shoulder shrug. Other complex motor tics may appear purposeful, including sniffing or touching objects, hopping, jumping, bending, or twisting.

Examples of vocal (phonic) tics in Tourette syndrome

Simple vocal tics include repetitive throat clearing, sniffing, barking, or grunting sounds.

Complex vocal tics may include repeating one’s own words or phrases, repeating others’ words or phrases (called echolalia), or more rarely, using vulgar, obscene, or swear words (called coprolalia).

Some of the most dramatic and disabling tics may include motor movements that result in self-harm such as punching oneself in the face or vocal tics such as echolalia or swearing. Some tics are preceded by an urge or sensation in the affected muscle group (called a premonitory urge). Some with TS will describe a need to complete a tic in a certain way or a certain number of times to relieve the urge or decrease the sensation.

Tic triggers
Tics are often worse with excitement or anxiety and better during calm, focused activities. Certain physical experiences can trigger or worsen tics; for example, tight collars may trigger neck tics. Hearing another person sniff or clear the throat may trigger similar sounds. Tics do not go away during light sleep but are often significantly diminished; they go away completely in deep sleep.

Although the symptoms of TS are unwanted and unintentional (called involuntary), some people can suppress or otherwise manage their tics to minimize their impact on functioning. However, people with TS often report a substantial buildup in tension when suppressing their tics to the point where they feel that the tic must be expressed (against their will). Tics in response to an environmental trigger can appear to be voluntary or purposeful but are not.

Disorders Associated with TS
Many individuals with TS experience additional co-occurring neurobehavioral problems (how the brain affects emotion, behavior, and learning) that often cause more impairment than the tics themselves. Although most individuals with TS experience a significant decline in motor and vocal tics in late adolescence and early adulthood, the associated neurobehavioral conditions may continue into adulthood.

News flash: some people who addicted to TikTok have develop these syndrome. ( These show something interesting about how some of TS trigger)

The most common co-occurring conditions include:

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including problems with concentration, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder or Behaviors (OCD/OCB): repetitive, unwanted thoughts, ideas, or sensations (obsessions) that make the person feel the need to perform behaviors repeatedly or in a certain way (compulsions). Repetitive behaviors can include handwashing, checking things, and cleaning, and can significantly interfere with daily life.

Anxiety (fear, unease, or apprehension about a situation or event that may have an uncertain ending).

Learning disabilities such as problems with reading, writing, and arithmetic that are not related to intelligence.

Behavioral or conduct issues, including socially inappropriate behaviors, aggression, or anger.

Problems falling or staying asleep.
Social skills deficits and social functioning difficulties, such as trouble with social skills and with maintaining social relationships.

Sensory processing issues, such as difficulty organizing and responding to sensory information related to touch, taste, smells, sounds, or movement.what is tourette syndrome?

How is TS diagnosed?

To diagnose TS, a doctor looks for the following:
Presence of both motor and vocal tics that occur several times a day, every day or intermittently for at least 1 year.
Onset of tics before age 18.

Tics not caused by medications, other substances, or medical conditions.how is ts diagnosed?

Common tics are often diagnosed by knowledgeable clinicians. However, atypical symptoms (different from classical symptoms) or atypical presentations (for example, symptoms that begin in adulthood) may require specific specialty expertise for diagnosis.

There are no blood, laboratory, or imaging tests needed for diagnosis. In rare cases, neuroimaging studies, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computerized tomography (CT), electroencephalogram (EEG) studies, or certain blood tests may be used to rule out other conditions that might be confused with TS.

It may take some time to receive a formal diagnosis of TS. Families and physicians unfamiliar with the disorder might think mild and even moderate tic symptoms may be negligible or unimportant, a part of a developmental phase, or the result of another condition. For example, some parents may think that eye blinking is related to vision problems or that sniffing is related to seasonal allergies.

How is TS treated?
Because tic symptoms often are mild and do not cause impairment, some people with TS require no treatment. There are effective medications and other treatments for people whose symptoms interfere with daily functioning.

Medications

Medications that block dopamine (drugs that may be used to treat psychotic and non-psychotic disorders) are the most consistently useful medications to suppress tics (for example, haloperidol and pimozide). These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Alpha-adrenergic agonists such as clonidine and guanfacine. These medications are used primarily for hypertension (high blood pressure) but are also used in the treatment of tics. These drugs may have or cause side effects and should be carefully managed by a physician or healthcare provider.

Stimulant medications such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine can lessen ADHD symptoms in people with TS without causing tics to become more severe. Previously, these drugs were not recommended for children with tics or TS and those with a family history of tics. Some studies show the short-term use of these drugs can help children with TS who also have ADHD.

Antidepressants, specifically, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (clomipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, and sertraline) have been proven effective in some people to control symptoms of depression, OCD, and anxiety.

Unfortunately, there is no one medication that is helpful to all people with TS, nor does any medication completely eliminate symptoms.

Other therapies and treatments can include:

Behavioral treatments such as awareness training and competing response training can be used to reduce tics. A recent NIH-funded, multi-center randomized control trial called Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) showed that training to voluntarily move in response to a premonitory urge can reduce tic symptoms. Other behavioral therapies, such as biofeedback or supportive therapy, have not been shown to reduce tic symptoms. However, supportive therapy can help a person with TS better cope with the disorder and deal with the secondary social and emotional problems that sometimes occur.

Psychotherapy can help individuals cope with the disorder and deal with accompanying problems or conditions, including ADHD, depression, anxiety, and OCD.

Famous people of tourette.
1.Billie Eilish
2.David Beckham
3.Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
4.Tim Howard
5.Marc Summers

Source; NIH, NIND, PUBMED, MEDSCAPE
~rasa mcm lari dr edit dr notepad phone~
Sekian dr grimmy081
@Grimmy081 melatah tu cam mana ? Tak faham saya tengok yt type melatah pening saya. Saya tak da titok ;-; so cam tu boleh kasi sikit info ;-;.
 
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Grimmy081

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@Grimmy081 melatah tu cam mana ? Tak faham saya tengok yt type melatah pening saya. Saya tak da titok ;-; so cam tu boleh kasi sikit info ;-;.
Semalam edit balik english to bahasa, dgn penambahan information pasal "latah" dgn siap picture lagi 🥲tgh sedap edit tetiba tertekan back................... print ( "can i turn back time?")

Malam kang edit balik 🤦
 

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@Craglitch melatah dgn tourette tu beza. Melatah tu adalah tindakan seseorang yg mendapat satu stimulasi yg mengejut kan. Tapi boleh dikawal oleh diri. ( Video A) kesemua watak didalam video tu kecuali host mempunyai sifat melatah ini. Melatah juga menyebabkan orang tersebut "copy paste" stimulus.

Video B - sindrom tourette, tidak boleh dikawal. Berlaku secara tanpa stimulus. Random timing.

Video A -

Video B - (warning vulgar language!!!)

 
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